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  • ...a ‘new, unfamiliar and ''non-textual''’ level which left the Communist Party struggling to deal with the phenomenon <ref>Fürst, Juliane, Stalin’s Las [[File:Andrei Zhdanov.jpg|275px|thumb|right|Soviet state and party figure Andrei Zhdanov.]]
    12 KB (1,691 words) - 15:11, 29 September 2019
  • ...the purpose of making the funds or an equivalent value payable to a third party in another geographic location, or not in the same form.” ''Hawala'' is ...which are then settled through the formal banking sector, while impartial third parties monitor and enforce rules and regulations.
    17 KB (2,403 words) - 12:32, 22 May 2019
  • ...tutarse or in other words ‘to get a job through the influence of a third party with whom there is a close link'<ref>Academia Chilena de la Lengua. (2010).
    9 KB (1,268 words) - 16:02, 17 May 2019
  • ...ivate gain. Because of the elite’s abuse of their power in the communist party and the ever-increasing tax levels on the few privatized business on the is
    13 KB (1,882 words) - 15:20, 29 September 2019
  • ...ntances, co-workers, or people who got to know one another through a third party. ...f give and take. However, when a ''štela'' is established through a third party, there is more of an expectation to reciprocate immediately by ‘rewarding
    15 KB (2,167 words) - 13:53, 23 May 2019
  • ...tance of Clientelism and Informal Practices for Employment Among Political Party Members After 2000s - An Explorative Enquiry’, in Cveticanin, P., Mangova ...inforced certain individuals’ dependency on and loyalty to the Communist party system by guaranteed privileges and personal promotion – something that a
    14 KB (2,008 words) - 13:41, 23 May 2019
  • ...ent under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder (comprised of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Greens) introduced a new programme for the exchange of person
    12 KB (1,620 words) - 09:20, 22 May 2019
  • ...n to change the constitution to legalise a third presidential term (the ‘Third Term Agenda’), many independent television stations reported cash-filled ...more ''egunje'' and other forms of inducement from political aspirants and party candidates. The danger is that the giver of the biggest ''egunje'', no matt
    12 KB (1,783 words) - 11:56, 16 May 2019
  • ...s to disseminate communist ideology by integrating them into the state and party structures. As a result, mahallas continued to serve as local village counc
    12 KB (1,698 words) - 15:09, 17 May 2019
  • ...the Soviet command economy and the pervasive interference of the Communist Party into the private sphere accelerated the spread of informal networks in Geor
    12 KB (1,680 words) - 15:29, 17 May 2019
  • ...ly linked to the ''kolkhoz'' (collective farm) workers or to the Communist Party officials. At the top, therefore, there was a Soviet system of governance, ...constantly moving from opposition to pro-government and back. The European party model has not taken root in Kyrgyzstan; the parties that function most acti
    12 KB (1,789 words) - 20:28, 17 May 2019
  • ...pass it to Sanader. The proceeds were used both to fund the HDZ political party, and for the personal enrichment of the individuals involved<ref>Vuletić, ...ddition to six individuals and FIMI-Media as a legal entity, the political party HDZ was also convicted. The individuals convicted included the former Prime
    13 KB (1,788 words) - 12:08, 20 June 2019
  • ...seminated subversive propaganda within the military, the Social Democratic Party, and the Stormtroopers. ...nt. (In fact he had, when a student and as a member of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany [SED], collaborated with the Stasi, but he had openly and delibe
    12 KB (1,736 words) - 21:00, 17 May 2019
  • ...ictory. In addition, the weakness of Russian civil society, the absence of party politics, the underdeveloped culture of democracy and the volatile reputati
    13 KB (1,957 words) - 09:23, 22 May 2019
  • ...equest it, but is not allowed to transfer or lease the property to a third party.
    13 KB (2,026 words) - 15:31, 17 May 2019
  • ...[[:Category: Urban| Urban]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Elite| Elite]] – [[:Category: Influence| Influence]] [[Category: Political party]]
    13 KB (1,738 words) - 16:04, 17 May 2019
  • ...gory: Leadership| Leadership]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Influence| Influence]] – [[:Category: Cash| Cash]]... [[Category: Political party]]
    13 KB (1,850 words) - 11:12, 16 May 2019
  • ...opposed such movements. In 1989, the ruling Communist party allowed multi-party elections to take place in Bulgaria, which in turn, after the fall of the S ...shouting, chanting, and taking part in special choreographed movements. A third important person is the guardian of the flag, which is the distinguishing s
    10 KB (1,522 words) - 11:56, 26 July 2019
  • ...ountain. In both cases, too, it is noteworthy that the reference to a rope-party is not only ascribed by the media, but is also promoted by the groups’ ow ...in: if a single member acts recklessly, he or she can drag down the entire party.
    11 KB (1,494 words) - 13:04, 23 May 2019
  • ...ection time (Piper 2015<ref> Piper, Laurence. 2015. ‘From Party-State to Party-Society in South Africa: SANCO and the Informal Politics of Community Repre ...unicipalities switched from the ANC to the opposition Democratic Allowance party (Chipkin 2016<ref> Chipkin, I. 2016. ‘The decline of African nationalism
    16 KB (2,150 words) - 13:33, 23 May 2019
  • ...nger Service Vehicle permits, helmets (for driver and passenger) and third party insurance, as well as controls on numbers. There were also repeated attempt ...y government’s efforts to regulate. This played a key role in the ruling party’s strategy for building political support in an opposition-controlled cit
    12 KB (1,779 words) - 15:30, 29 September 2019
  • ...09<ref>Marquez, A. 1990. ‘The Other Path by Hernando De Soto’, 10 B.C. Third World L.J., 10, 204-213, 3 March, http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/twlj/vol1 ...d the DA’s rhetoric suggest that moralistic framework has influenced the party’s views on both alcohol and ''shebeens''.
    12 KB (1,720 words) - 18:38, 17 May 2019
  • ...s and distinctions based on memberships or links to a particular political party ...gory: Employment| Employment]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Elite| Elite]] – [[:Category: Influence| Influence]]
    14 KB (1,798 words) - 14:47, 23 May 2019
  • ...at the time that the order was made. As in other communist states, active party members and those with large personal networks advanced up the queue faster
    11 KB (1,669 words) - 15:35, 29 September 2019
  • ...ion. New rooms are being added or enlarged; roofs converted into second or third floors; and terraces built on top of homes (Riveira 2012<ref>Riveira, G. 2 ...favelas'' to attend the (in)famous ''Baile Funk'' – a specific music and party scene. In recent years, ''favela'' tourism has also become a popular busine
    13 KB (1,873 words) - 14:50, 29 September 2019
  • ...lic of Bulgaria, wrestling had been a popular sport in which the Communist party had invested a substantial amount of money establishing sporting facilities
    18 KB (2,465 words) - 18:42, 17 May 2019
  • ...’ (''toma de terreno''). Commonly they were the construct of a political party and were formed ‘in a single, sudden and sometimes violent act that took A third reason that explains the existence of informal settlements in Chile is immi
    16 KB (2,307 words) - 14:49, 29 September 2019
  • ...to officials direct - instead they find an intermediary to act as a third party. In instances where a businessman and official have not yet established a r
    13 KB (1,928 words) - 15:27, 29 September 2019
  • ...c administration employee through a nepotistic relationship or a political party affiliation and does not usually possess the required qualifications for th ...[:Category: Kinship| Kinship]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]]
    15 KB (2,046 words) - 08:07, 2 July 2019
  • ...tegory: Influence| Influence]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] [[Category: Political party]]
    10 KB (1,471 words) - 08:08, 2 July 2019
  • ...rt Jeremiah Beverege, who in 1912 referred to the Progressive Party as the party that ‘has come from the grass roots. It has grown from the soil of people
    13 KB (1,900 words) - 13:12, 20 May 2019
  • ...ries who secure, or try to secure, some advantage for someone from a third party who is in a position to provide that advantage. [[Wāsta]] in the Middle Ea ...roperty rights are not established, is one example. It has evident uses in Third World countries; there are parallels in Bogota, Cairo and in some sub-Sahar
    12 KB (1,941 words) - 15:37, 8 October 2018
  • ...cash for access’ the money paid by the client is given to the political party of which the agent is a member, which helps to fund the political resources
    14 KB (1,988 words) - 15:17, 29 September 2019
  • ...e’ was introduced by George Orwell's dystopian novel ''1984'', where the Party's Ministry of Truth systematically re-created all potential historical docu ...umours about an opposition candidate than negative rumours about their own party candidates.
    15 KB (2,043 words) - 10:16, 22 May 2019
  • ...be created for free in a few seconds, anyone can transfer value to a third party anywhere in the world, whether to purchase goods from merchants who accept ...cking digital cryptocurrencies. O’Reilly Media.</ref>). Over time, third-party service providers backed by venture capital firms have entered the scene (e
    12 KB (1,647 words) - 13:16, 20 May 2019
  • ...ts and – the worst – calling for control mechanisms over the Communist Party (Van Voren 2010<ref>Van Voren, R. 2010.Cold War in Psychiatry. Amsterdam: ...nd in the mid-1970s many hospitals were enlarged or newly built. About one third of the political prisoners wound up in psychiatric hospital, where they wer
    10 KB (1,400 words) - 12:09, 26 July 2019
  • ...he politicians then added the money to party funds as faked donations from party members (Die Welt 2004<ref>Die Welt. 2004. ‘Der Kölner Müllskandal,’
    10 KB (1,422 words) - 16:35, 21 May 2019
  • ...er part of the twentieth century in Chicago, they were referred to as ‘''party precincts''’ and played an important role in ‘machine politics’ (''ib Scholars have attributed their large numbers to deepening party competition since the 1970s and to the concomitant expansion in the number
    11 KB (1,582 words) - 15:15, 29 September 2019
  • ...action or property made or held under a fictitious name or that of a third party, who acts as ostensible owner on behalf of the real owner ...[[:Category: Ownership| Ownership]] – [[:Category: Third party| Third party]] – [[:Category: Concealment| Concealment]] – [[:Category: Triangle| Tr
    13 KB (1,928 words) - 16:14, 16 May 2019
  • ...hare the heights of the economic power. This power is passed down to local party officials and technocrats, so that they may enjoy significant autonomy vis-
    13 KB (1,733 words) - 13:29, 20 May 2019
  • [[Category: Political party]]
    13 KB (1,777 words) - 15:04, 29 September 2019
  • ...estigation into the rape and murder of a fourteen-year old girl at a beach party in an Australian town in 1989. The book describes what happens when shame a
    11 KB (1,649 words) - 15:14, 17 May 2019
  • ...However, they tend to be more comfortable participating if they trust the party conducting the study; in particular if an interviewer is perceived as ''biz
    12 KB (1,580 words) - 12:43, 23 May 2019
  • | definition =Letter of support based on party political membership, which grants members exclusive access to positions wi ...tegory: Influence| Influence]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]]
    10 KB (1,453 words) - 20:10, 17 May 2019
  • ...riod. On 15 November 1975, the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party issued a decree entitled ‘Measures to increase the fight against harmful
    13 KB (1,956 words) - 17:16, 5 June 2019
  • ...d as an integral part of the solution to a problem. Conventionally a third party may be consulted to act like an intermediary or [[broker]] towards conflict
    10 KB (1,437 words) - 15:19, 29 September 2019
  • ...ct each other against investigations or reprimands from higher up. At the party Central Committee of February-March 1937 Stalin's accusations of '' semeist
    12 KB (1,793 words) - 12:52, 17 May 2019
  • ...erarchical mechanism whereby clients or friends were promoted by Communist Party patrons (Hirszowicz 1973<ref>Hirszowicz, M. 1973. ''Komunistyczny Lewiatan'
    10 KB (1,475 words) - 17:17, 5 June 2019
  • ...help. Participation was voluntary and reward was never monetary but a good party. The absence of formal payment and the fusion of work and enjoyment were i
    13 KB (1,951 words) - 16:06, 17 May 2019
  • ...p stalls in formalised '' jangmadang'' are required to pay a stall tax to Party cadres in order to keep their slots—thus making the state complicit in ma
    10 KB (1,534 words) - 12:43, 22 May 2019
  • ...tegory: Elections| Elections]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Favour| Favour]] – [[:Category: Fraud| Fraud]] – [[: [[Category: Political party]]
    16 KB (2,307 words) - 15:08, 5 October 2019
  • The ''songbun'' system originated from a resolution of The Workers’ Party Politburo of 30 May 1957, which introduced the concept of dividing North Ko
    12 KB (1,722 words) - 13:16, 23 May 2019
  • ...gosudarstvennyi arkhiv noveishei istorii (Central Archive of the Communist Party, 1953 on) </ref>). ''Kolkhozy'' also used middlemen to acquire needed spare ...gosudarstvennyi arkhiv noveishei istorii (Central Archive of the Communist Party, 1953 on) </ref>). Sewing women and tailors were likewise liable: there are
    13 KB (1,791 words) - 13:22, 20 May 2019
  • | definition =Record of compromising information on MPs held by party whips to ensure voting discipline ...is is because while whips do indeed gather and record information on their party’s MPs, only a very small proportion of it could be considered ‘dirt’
    14 KB (2,094 words) - 10:32, 22 May 2019
  • ...et Union when security services collected condemning material on Communist Party members that could be traded or used to either punish or blackmail rivals.
    12 KB (1,581 words) - 12:44, 17 May 2019
  • ...North America| North America]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Elite| Elite]] – [[:Category: Reputation| Reputation]] [[Category: Political party]]
    12 KB (1,643 words) - 16:07, 17 May 2019
  • ...e leaders of the factory’s branch of the ruling Polish United Workers’ Party. Together, the clique exploited their positions to secure higher incomes fo
    13 KB (1,799 words) - 08:12, 2 July 2019
  • ...kspert, 21 December. </ref>). For this practice to succeed, the initiating party was required to coordinate and mobilise an informal network of various acto
    13 KB (1,799 words) - 13:51, 23 May 2019
  • ...as a result of the non-existence, non-enactment or invalidation of a law. Third, conflicts of rules within one law or with other laws may also prevent rule ...deterrence function of law served to ensure obedience within the Communist Party and the state, thereby maintaining the given political order. In the post-S
    11 KB (1,536 words) - 13:48, 23 May 2019
  • ...nist Party intervened within the judiciary. It was the leading role of the Party, its status above the law, and its protection ''vis-à-vis'' the law that u ...at party meetings. (''ibid'': 225). Such briefings pushed judges to place party loyalty (''partiynost''’) above concerns for legality (''zakonnost''’).
    12 KB (1,621 words) - 14:57, 29 September 2019
  • ...part of a particularly important ''tal'', or a'' tal'' in which the other party is influential in certain circles, to boast about it so as to demonstrate p ...terview to Jutarnji in 2014, Mirela Holy, the leader of Croatian political party ORaH – Sustainable Development of Croatia, noted that there was no strate
    14 KB (2,011 words) - 15:04, 29 September 2019
  • ...or making it possible for Bolsheviks to christen their babies despite the party ban on religious rituals. Then came the more sophisticated needs of late so ...ncreasingly privatised, putting a price tag on the ‘favour of access.’ Third, the sense of security and long-term horizon associated with socialism –
    14 KB (2,011 words) - 13:19, 20 May 2019
  • ...intermediary (A) who obtains a favour for the supplicant (B) from a third party (C).
    14 KB (2,012 words) - 20:07, 17 May 2019
  • ...in the Encyclopedia the ambivalence is exaggerated (e.g employment through party channels) ...bitation is influenced by, and influences, contexts they move from and in. Third, the Encyclopaedia did not give much space to considering ethical and metho
    39 KB (5,991 words) - 09:50, 30 September 2019
  • ''Third'', the book will be able to be widely used in seminars and lectures because If you would like to purchase a discounted copy (a third OFF the retail price) they should send the
    51 KB (8,264 words) - 09:47, 30 September 2019
  • ...tegory: Influence| Influence]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Elite| Elite]] – [[:Category: Personal connections| Pe [[Category: Political party]]
    9 KB (1,271 words) - 15:34, 24 June 2019
  • aggression’ disguised as members of Svoboda, a nationalist anti-Yanukovych party Yanukovych’s Party of Regions was the highest (Goncharenko 2014<ref>Goncharenko, R. 2014. ‘T
    14 KB (1,924 words) - 20:17, 17 May 2019
  • ...aptizing a child and become the child’s second parents, cumătri. At the party following the baptism, the ''cumătri'' have a central role and perform a p
    10 KB (1,464 words) - 16:23, 16 May 2019
  • ...[[:Category: Elite| Elite]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Problem-solving| Problem-solving]] – [[:Category: Pers [[Category: Political party]]
    11 KB (1,595 words) - 16:11, 13 October 2019
  • ...tegory: East Asia| East Asia]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Election| Election]] – [[:Category: Migration| Migrati [[Category: Political party]]
    13 KB (1,940 words) - 13:39, 23 May 2019
  • company’s assets to third parties (often affiliated with the raider). A shareholders’ meeting ...de opportunities to issue more shares (sold to the raider or an affiliated party),
    12 KB (1,716 words) - 15:26, 17 May 2019
  • ...Moscow: Tekst.</ref>, humans dress as game to entertain hunting parties of Party elite
    11 KB (1,498 words) - 16:09, 17 May 2019
  • fraud between 1943 and 1947, and 88 Communist Party investigations of 454 Party members involving proven cases of plan fraud between 1943 and 1962.
    10 KB (1,540 words) - 16:12, 17 May 2019
  • Parliament, forms a multi-party body representing the different regions and languages of
    11 KB (1,542 words) - 13:40, 23 May 2019
  • ...Party A transferred a commodity to Party B, who thereby became indebted to Party ...commodity was then transferred to Party C, who in turn became indebted to Party B,
    14 KB (1,911 words) - 15:41, 29 September 2019
  • ...Law, which states that the employees should not be given gifts by a third party (patients), unless the employer (the resident doctor) permits them. There i
    11 KB (1,664 words) - 12:08, 26 July 2019
  • ...Walle, N. (2003) “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems.”
    23 KB (3,163 words) - 14:00, 12 November 2019
  • ...the supplicant, with whom the broker has a close relationship, and a third party, with whom the broker is acquainted. Tapsh is a form of representative brok ...led a ''wasta'' broker by the party closer to them and simsar by the other party. Their relationship is always biased - as scholarship notes (Stovel and Sha
    11 KB (1,547 words) - 10:49, 20 May 2019
  • | definition =Attending an unauthorised all-night dance party (a rave), featuring electronic music and consumption of psychedelic drugs ...lic drugs. Rave is a shortened version of ‘rave-up’, a term for a wild party.
    10 KB (1,303 words) - 15:21, 17 May 2019
  • ...ry: MENA region| MENA region]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Patronage| Patronage]] – [[:Category: Employment| Empl [[Category: Political party]]
    9 KB (1,184 words) - 15:23, 29 September 2019
  • ...blic service| Public service]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Money| Money]] – [[:Category: Cash| Cash]] – [[:Cate [[Category: Political party]]
    12 KB (1,711 words) - 15:22, 29 September 2019
  • ...pute resolution, where the mediator is a neutral actor. It refers to third-party representation of a marginalised social group to a political authority and ...ttention of the government, which passed an anti-usury law in consequence. Third, the ''OBON'' women helped to politicise practical needs and pragmatic issu
    11 KB (1,469 words) - 12:05, 26 July 2019
  • ...practice leads to a win-win, with both parties being the ‘winner’; one party for having made an appropriate show of hospitality, and the other for being
    10 KB (1,464 words) - 12:10, 26 March 2019
  • [[Category: Political party]] ...elite bargaining. According to North et al., the elites gradually accept a third-part law enforcement because of the guarantee that the entry of new people
    17 KB (2,600 words) - 14:46, 2 April 2019
  • ...rtive relationship among politicians (especially in the Liberal Democratic Party), public servants and private companies operating in Japan (Colignon and Us
    12 KB (1,618 words) - 11:51, 26 July 2019
  • ...[[:Category: Favour| Favour]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Elections| Elections]] – [[:Category: Euphemism| Euphe [[Category: Political party]]
    9 KB (1,376 words) - 14:07, 10 July 2019
  • ...tegory: Elections| Elections]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Justice| Justice]] – [[:Category: Elders| Elders]]... [[Category: Political party]]
    11 KB (1,643 words) - 17:03, 7 September 2019
  • ...ions related to ''chernaya kassa'' relate to political corruption, illicit party funds, and manipulation of the state budget by the elites (Barsukova and Zv
    10 KB (1,454 words) - 14:35, 14 September 2019
  • ...tegory: Patronage| Patronage]] – [[:Category: Political party| Political party]] – [[:Category: Vote buying| Vote buying]] – [[:Category: Vote selling [[Category: Political party]]
    13 KB (1,727 words) - 11:56, 24 September 2019
  • ...and social turmoil ended in the 1930s, and the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ‘routinized’ the post-revolutionary regime in the 1940s, ''caciqu ...nt; a centralized authority of the president; a corporatist pact among the party, interest groups, and bureaucratic leaders; and a clientelist pyramid compo
    11 KB (1,442 words) - 14:01, 5 November 2019
  • ...ltural value. In 2017, Nhân Dân, the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Vietnam, featured an interview with the Uruguayan economist Martin Rama
    12 KB (1,687 words) - 15:03, 12 November 2019